A day of violence in July 1968. The causes ran deep, pitting the nonviolence philosophy of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. against the armed self-defense philosophy of Malcolm X and black nationalists. Cleveland became a proving ground.  It was the ballot or the bullet.

 Dr. King at Cory United Methodist Church in the spring of 1963, just after being released from the Birmingham jail

Dr. King at Cory United Methodist Church in the spring of 1963, just after being released from the Birmingham jail

 
 Aerial view of scene next day 

Aerial view of scene next day 

Ballots and Bullets, Cover.jpg
 
 

Fred "Ahmed" Evans after arrest in July 1968